“China’s Wuhan shuts down transport as global alarm mounts over virus spread”
Reuters, Jan. 21, 2020
Wuhan (武漢), capital of Hubei Province, used to have a much different reputation than it does currently. A little-known city on the Yangtze, Wuhan is now solidly branded globally as the “epicenter of the coronavirus.” On Jan. 22, the Chinese government put a real damper on the upcoming Lunar New Year festivities: it suspended all transport out of Wuhan, population 11 million, as a measure to contain the spread of the virus. Hotels and tourist attractions have been told by the government to suspend large-scale new year activities. Wuhan residents have been asked “not to leave the city.”
In another time, back in the days at the height of the construction of the Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River tours inevitably originated from or ended in Wuhan. Situated on the confluence of the Han River and the Yangtze, this metropolis was consolidated from three districts in 1927: Wuchang, Hankou and Hanyang. Its name actually is a combination of “Wu” from Wuchang and “Han” from the other two districts.
The city is known for its national historical and cultural sites. It has more than 339 scenic spots and historical sites, 103 revolutionary commemoration places, 13 national key cultural relics protection units, 156 provincial and municipal key cultural relics protection units. Famous landmark architecture includes the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Yuefei Pavilion and the Yellow Crane Tower.
But to history buffs, Wuhan is famous for something much bigger! The metropolis has a 3,500-year-long history. During the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864), the Wuhan area had been under the control of rebel forces for many years. When the Qing Dynasty lost the second Opium War (1856-1860), they had to sign the Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention of Peking, which stipulated 11 cities or regions as trading ports. Hankou was one of them. (Hankou had been a fairly busy trading port even during the Han Dynasty.)
By 1900, Hankou had flourished. Secret societies against the Qing Dynasty were active in Wuhan. Eleven years later, October 1911, Sun Yat-sen’s followers launched the Wuchang Uprising that eventually led to the demise of the Qing Dynasty and the founding of the Chinese Republic.
Wuhan became the capital of the left wing of the Kuomintang, in opposition to the faction led by Chiang Kai-shek. When Nanking fell during the second Sino-Japanese War in December 1937, Wuhan became the provisional capital of the Kuomintang. It came under Japanese occupation by 1938 and the major Japanese logistics center for Japanese operations in southern China. As a result, it came under heavy attack in December 1944 – bombs dropped from 77 U.S. bombers set off a firestorm and destroyed much of the city.
Not only has Wuhan overcome all the conflicts and battles, it has grown into an important trade, finance, transportation and information technology center. It has foreign investments from 80 countries and includes engineering, materials and environmental protection industries. Former U.K Prime Minister Teresa May visited the city and some of its well-known tourist attractions in 2018.
When the Chinese Heritage Foundation recently honored Ruth Stricker Dayton for opening minds to
Chinese medicine as the basis for contemporary views of health and wellness, it struck me that Ruth’s
influence on the St. Catherine University health programs in this respect is not well known. As a long-
time faculty member and dean, I was stimulated to look back at her St. Catherine’s impact over four
In the early 1980s, Ruth taught several classes on Chinese medicine, holism and wellness for us.
Topics included the Chinese conceptualization of the human body as an energy system, contrasts between
eastern and western medicine, and the meaning of life balance as conveyed by the yin and yang symbol.
Immersing themselves in the breakthrough eastern thinking Ruth introduced, faculty went on to
create two credit-bearing certificate programs, Health and Wellness Counseling and Holistic Therapies.
Eventually these were combined to form the currently offered Master of Holistic Health Studies program.
As more faculty members became engaged, holistic content was integrated into a wide range of programs.
The programs matured, faculty expertise grew and the number of St. Catherine Henrietta Schmoll School
of Health graduates spreading holistic approaches increased dramatically.
The School of Health continues to expand the holistic approach as evidenced by recent
developments in its nursing department. Working within the eastern perspective has led to deeper
curriculum emphasis on healing principles originating from Chinese medicine as well as Native
American, Hmong, African and other cultures. The baccalaureate nursing program now has the American
Holistic Nurses Association accreditation agency’s approval, making their nursing graduates eligible for
certification as holistic nurses. It is common practice to each year have some nursing graduate students
select holistic-related topics for their final projects. And faculty members are recognized in their field for
advancing the “unitary human caring science” theory of nursing, a theory incorporating eastern energy
Ruth’s living legacy presses forward at St. Catherine University. The holistic insights from Chinese
medicine that she brought to St. Catherine’s so many years ago evolve ongoing in the School of Health’s
day-to-day teaching, learning and research processes. They are applied on campus as students learn and
in the numerous clinical and community organizations where graduates work. Ruth’s courageous,
generous and energetic advancement of the holism that gives health and unites the planet will always
inspire. Her abiding gift evokes our enduring gratitude.
Thank you for adding my St. Catherine University perspective to our community’s knowledge of
Ruth’s extraordinary contributions and how they emanate from her embrace of Chinese medicine and
Mary Broderick, PhD, RN
Professor, Nursing (Retired)
St. Catherine University
By Francis P. Sempa, Asian Review of Books, Jan 1, 2020
Whither China? It is perhaps the most important question on the minds of statesmen, diplomats, and scholars. French political scientist Jean-Pierre Cabestan, who teaches at Hong Kong Baptist University, attempts to supply the answer in his new book China Tomorrow: Democracy or Dictatorship?
The title of the book is a bit misleading because from the outset Cabestan contends that China will continue to be a one-party authoritarian state for the foreseeable future. China’s Communist Party has installed what Cabestan calls a “‘new authoritarian equilibrium,’ which should help with maintaining its dictatorship for a long time.” Communist ideology is still utilized by the regime, but Cabestan, like other China watchers, believes the regime’s continuing legitimacy depends much more on economic success and appeals to nationalism.
Approximately 20000 Chinese American men and women served in every theatre of WWII defending American values. They exhibited patriotism and valor despite the existence of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and acts of discrimination. Of all WWII Chinese American veterans, an estimated of only 500-1000 are alive today.
The Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA) and the National Chinese American Citizens Alliance Community Involvement Fund spearheaded the Chinese American WWII Veterans Recognition Project, a “national campaign to identify, honor and recognize the efforts and accomplishments of all Chinese Americans who served in the United States Armed Services in World War II.”
Through advocacy and public outreach, the project has ensured that Chinese American achievements and contributions of the ‘greatest generation’ will never be forgotten. Beginning with bipartisan legislation introduced in the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives in May 2017, the bills for the passage of the Chinese-American World War II Veteran Congressional Gold Medal Act passed the Senate in September 2018 and the House in December 2018. President Donald Trump signed it into law on Dec. 20, 2018, whereby the U.S Mint and project representatives set about designing the medal.
When will the Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony happen?
The CAWW2 Congressional Medal design has been completed and is awaiting final approval from the Secretary of the Treasury. Once approved by Secretary Mnuchin, Congress will set the date of the Medal Ceremony, which we anticipate will be held in Spring 2020.
What do you need to do now?
If your application was approved, you need to identify who will accept the medal by completing the Award of Medal Form. There is no need to complete this form again if you completed the form earlier.
Where will the CGM Ceremony be?
The first CGM ceremony will be in capital and the presentation will be done by Congress. In addition to the CGM ceremony, there also will be a D.C. Gala Dinner honoring the CAWW2 Veterans and their families. Seating at the CGM ceremony at Emancipation Hall will be limited. The Veterans Recognition Project will do its best to accommodate all who wish to attend. Of course, living CAWW2 veterans will receive priority over all other requests, followed by sponsor/donors with seating as defined by level of gift. It is anticipated that demand will exceed capacity and the remaining seats will be determined through a lottery system. However, all requests to attend the Gala Dinner should be accommodated. More information will be released once the date of the Washington CGM ceremony is set.
The Veterans Recognition Project also will host regional ceremonies across the country. Dates will be released after the Washington CGM ceremony in the is set.
Can veterans still be registered?
Yes, the Veterans Recognition Project will work to continue to identify CAWW2 Veterans eligible for the CGM. Veterans should be registered on our website.
Help make history!
Consider a donation to the CAWW2 Veterans Recognition Project by joining the Recognition Circle. Donations are tax deductible to the full extent of the law. Donations of appreciated stocks, mutual funds and bonds that are publicly traded are also accepted.
Gold Medal Circle
With a contribution of $10,000 or more, supporters can become part of Gold Medal Circle. Members receive the listing in materials, invitation to all events, and have the option to present a Congressional Gold Medal at a medal ceremony. Benefits for the Washington DC Ceremony include:
Four reserved seats at the Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony at Emancipation Hall in Washington, D.C.
One table (10 seats) at the D.C. Gala Dinner; and
One-page ad in program book.
With a contribution of $5,000 or more, supporters can become a part of the Founders Circle. Members receive the listing in materials and have the opportunity to attend our Chinese American World War II Veterans medal ceremonies and other events.
Benefits for the Washington Ceremony include:
Two reserved seats at the Congressional Gold Medal Ceremony at Emancipation Hall in Washington
Half -table (five seats) at the D.C. Gala Dinner; and
One-page ad in program book.
Project's website: https://www.caww2.org
By Greg Hugh
The China Center recently celebrated building bridges between the U.S. and China with an evening of festive food, entertainment and socializing at the McNamara Alumni Center Memorial Hall.
The celebration began with a social hour with a guzheng performance by Jarrelle Barton. The UMN Chinese Culture Club also made an appearance in traditional Chinese clothing and posed for photos with guests. For those so inclined, there was an opportunity to bid on China-related items donated by generous friends of the China Center. Auction items included a curated tour of MIA with Dr. Yang Liu and a literati night with dinner, poems and traditional music at the Xiangjiang Pavilion located in Lake Phalen Regional Park in Saint Paul.
Opening remarks were then provided by present and past members of the China Center staff as dinner was served.
John Holden, a University of Minnesota alumnus, delivered the keynote speech on U.S.-China relations and exchanges, "Minnesota to China: A 40-Year Reflection." One of the first UMN students to travel to China in the 1970s before China opened to the West, Holden is Senior Director for China at McLarty Associates and former senior fellow in the Carnegie Asia Program and former president of the National Committee on United States-China Relations. He earned his bachelor's degree in Chinese Language and Literature from the University of Minnesota. Since his first trip to Asia in 1972, Holden has studied or worked for a total of 25 years in Taipei, Hong Kong, Beijing and Kyoto.
The China Center is proud to celebrate 40 years of working to build the bridge of understanding, friendship, exchange, and cooperation between the U.S. and Greater China (mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan).
To learn more about the China Center, visit www.chinacenter.umn.edu/
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During Nov. 21-Dec. 1, 2019, a group of 18 Hong Kong graphic designers held an exhibition titled “Yellow Objects.” The theme of the 18 finish-it-yourself posters was “Yellow object is ____________” where visitors were encouraged to fill in the blank themselves.
“Yellow object” became an internet meme after a policeman was caught on a widely circulated video kicking a pro-democracy protester in a dark alley on Sept. 21, 2019. At the police briefing the following day, the police superintendent said the officer kicked a “yellow object on the ground.” At that point, a reporter interjected, “He is a human, not an object!”
“It’s a communist tactic: You dehumanize, you demonize, you reduce your enemies to nothing and then you attack,” said one of the pro-democracy legislators.
The pro-democracy protests began as peaceful marches in March 2019 after the publication of the 2019 Hong Kong extradition bill. By October, property damage and throwing objects at police had become part of the exercise. So were street posters and graffiti. On the other hand, police also had stepped up arrests and use of force. Distrust of the police force escalated. And the growing animosity from either side showed no signs of abating.
The 18 yellow and black posters of the exhibit mock the brutal and ruthless police reference of a human being as an “object,” and serve as a reminder to defend and uphold human dignity. They are all copyright-free for download and distribution. The designers hope the audience would bring the message back to their community by putting up these posters in their neighborhoods. “It will be a perfect demonstration of our outcry for freedom, that will not be silenced by violence, “they said.
An online post by Openground Café where the exhibit was held, read
18 anonymous designers, 18 voices, 18 posters, both objects and not only objects. Graphic Design is a container, printed as a poster, and becomes organic. Every Poster of the exhibition is available for free of charge, and everyone is invited to share and spread the message together in their respective communities to infect more people. This is just a demonstration that people call for freedom, not violence can be put out.”
By Maj. Gen. Bill Chen, U.S. Army, retired
14th Air Service Group Memorial Day Parade 1943, Springfield, Ill.
On May 10, 2019, at Promontory Summit, Utah, the recognition and honoring of Chinese railroad workers at the 150th Anniversary of the Transcontinental Railroad completed the story arc of Chinese railroad workers. Along the way, Chinese railroad workers endured hard work, danger, risk of life, and sacrifices while also being ignored, forgotten, excluded and snubbed. Progress in recognition has been slow - the completed arc gave closure to the first major contribution of Chinese in America - the building of the First Transcontinental Railroad.
While not a historian, I would say that the second major contribution of Chinese in America and Chinese Americans was their service in World War II. Here I distinguish between Chinese in America and Chinese Americans, where the former were Chinese, not American citizens in America; and the latter predominately are native or natural-born Americans of Chinese origin.
Using some poetic license on what a story arc is – this article recaps the storyline of the Chinese American World War II veterans.
On Sept. 12, following a performance of “The King of Hell’s Palace” at London’s Hempstead Theatre, the Chinese whistleblower received a standing ovation from the audience.
The play, one the Chinese government pressured the whistleblower to cancel, is based on the whistleblower’s life and tells of the spread of the HIV epidemic in eastern Henan Province in the 1990s. According to a statement posted by the whistleblower on the theater’s website, the Chinese government feared the play would “cause embarrassment” to the government “and damage the reputation of specific officials.”
In the early1990s, Henan Province had a thriving commercial blood harvesting industry where hundreds of thousands of poor farmers were recruited to sell blood for a few dollars, which contributed to the spread of hepatitis C and HIV. Dr. WANG Shuping (王淑平) was the Chinese whistleblower. She collected evidence and exposed efforts to conceal an AIDS epidemic in rural China.
Wang was one of the earliest medical professionals engaged in the war against AIDS in China. She became aware of cross-contamination of plasma bought from poor farmers at a plasma collection station ran by Zhoukou city’s epidemic prevention center. The stations’ equipment was often not sterilized properly. “Leftover” blood was often mixed in tubs and transfused back into the blood sellers so they can sell more blood more quickly.
Realizing the gravity of the situation, Wang reported the issue to officials at the local health bureau. That drew no response from the local authorities. She then reported it to the Ministry of Health in Beijing, but was asked to falsify her data about the HIV epidemic among plasma donors. She refused because she knew, if unchecked, the contaminated plasma would enable the HIV virus to decimate poverty-stricken rural communities.
Her refusal to keep quiet brought on unspeakable hardships for her and her family. It cost her marriage. Her parents were forced to don dunce caps on a stage in front of thousands of people. She was physically attacked. She lost her job.
Despite all that, Wang stayed the course in her quest to stem the bad blood issue. She defied the Chinese government not once, but twice: first by refusing to cover up the AIDS epidemic in the 1990s and then, in 2019, exposed the pressure tactics used to intimidate her throughout.
In a statement published Sept. 3, 2019, Wang said, "They pressured me to close the clinical testing center but I wouldn't give in, and then Zhoukou health bureau sent people to cut off the electricity and water supply to my lab, forcing it to discard thousands of blood samples from blood donors. Eventually, they collaborated with the Henan provincial health bureau to close the clinical testing center.
“I am an America now, and am a U.S. citizen. I tell myself that I protected vulnerable and helpless people and that I have to be strong against evil powers. I hope the play helps expose and stop the kinds of corruption and bullying Chinese doctors, health officials and AIDS activists like Dr. Gao Yaojie, Wan Yanhai and myself endured during our efforts to draw attention to the Henan AIDS epidemic of the 1990s.”
The Chinese government quietly closed the plasma collection stations in 1996 and introduced HIV- screening tests, as recommended by Wang originally. Unfortunately, by then, countless (the BBC estimates more than half a million) people had already been infected; many families were affected. And it is believed an underground trade in tainted blood continued to flourish. In 2001, the Chinese government admitted there was a serious AIDS outbreak in central China, and established a special health clinic to treat AIDS-related illnesses.
Wang was born in Henan Province in 1959. When Mao Zedong’s Cultural Revolution began, her parents (mother was a village doctor, father was a math teacher) were attacked for their backgrounds. At 8, her education was cut short because of the persecution. Five years later, an uncle took her away from her home village, adopted her so she could resume her education. In 1991, shortly after graduating medical school, she began work at a plasma collection center in Henan.
In 1997, Wang moved to Beijing where she found others as alarmed by the AIDS epidemic in rural Henan Province as she. In 2001, she moved to the U.S. by herself, leaving behind her young daughter and husband, and eventually became a U.S. citizen and continued her medical research work. She remarried in 2005. She never returned to China because she said she “did not feel safe.”
“I ran into huge troubles, which involved the power and money against the lives of the poor and the powerless. I made the decision to stand up for innocent people who were infected by the severe HCV and HIV viruses. I didn’t concern myself with my own fate. This is the first rule as a doctor,” Wang said in a recent interview.
On Sept. 21, she died of a heart attack while hiking in Utah with friends and second husband Gary Christensen. She was 59.
An anonymous, partisan federal employee in Washington, D.C., blew the whistle on a presidential diplomatic phone call in 2019 resulted in a namby-pamby impeachment “inquiry.” A doctor in central China blew the whistle on shoddy government practices and saved thousands of lives. Whistleblowers are not created equal!
President Xi Jinping has steered China into one of its most repressive periods since Mao Zedong’s rule. Those who dare step outside party line are silenced, detained, or worse. The fact that he is unencumbered by presidential term limits has empowered his pursuit of “national rejuvenation” more than ever. And reunification is only a matter of destiny and a requirement for rejuvenation.
Hong Kong, in utmost turmoil as this goes to press, knows full well the significance of Xi’s power. The extradition bill introduced earlier this year raised their antennae for trouble ahead. The current Hong Kong protesters are prepared to do whatever it takes to resist Beijing’s increasing encroachment.
Of course, there also is a different camp who would like to see an end to the protests, if not just because of the inconvenience, but because of the chaotic image projected to the world. They fear economic repercussions and abhor the violence and property damage.
The violent clashes of 2019 stand in stark contrast to the mainly peaceful Occupy Central movement of 2014. But then, the stakes also are much higher today. The protesters are fighting for their freedoms and their way of life.
A Sept. 28 South China Morning Post article disclosed that Carrie Lam, Hong Kong’s chief executive, had to seek Xi’s approval to formally withdraw the infamous extradition bill despite saying it was her own decision to do so three weeks earlier. The mid-September U.S. Congressional hearing in Wash., D.C., which, amongst others, included student activist Joshua Wong, Cantonese pop star Denise Ho and Dan Garrett, a U.S. citizen and academic who had lived in and written a book on Hong Kong, told of deteriorating circumstances and increasing erosion of civil liberties facing Hong Kongers. Garrett was denied reentry to Hong Kong after his testimony in front of Congress.
Are mass arrests and martial law next? Or worse … a repeat of Tiananmen Square played out at Tamar Park, the Admiralty or any one of the many protest sites?
Who, besides Hong Kongers, is paying full attention to all this? The 23 million people on an island approximately 440 miles to the east of Hong Kong.
The island of Taiwan, for all intents and purposes, has been an independent, self-governing democracy since 1949 even though China has claimed sovereignty over it.
The Taiwanese are increasingly alarmed by what’s happening in Hong Kong since Xi had mentioned “One Country, Two Systems” may be a model for Taiwan after reunification, AND that “China reserved the right to use force” to that end.
Approximately 300 Taiwanese turned up in Taipei’s Central Park on Aug. 11 to spell out “Free Hong Kong.” There are efforts by private Taiwanese citizens to collect and donate to Hong Kong protesters kits of gas masks, air filters and helmets. As in Hong Kong, Lennon Walls at rally sites and coffee shops are proliferating in Taiwan as well.
Taiwan’s President Tsai Ing-wen has also been completely resolute in her support of the Hong Kong protests. A June 17 parliamentary statement included one paragraph that said, “The legislature expresses support for the citizens of Hong Kong in their pursuit of democracy and freedom. It urges the Hong Kong government to withdraw the extradition bill.”
Tsai tweeted in June:
Tsai has defied Xi’s reunification. In her 2019 New Year speech she called on China “to face squarely the reality of the existence of the Republic of China on Taiwan” and that China should “respect the insistence of 23 million people on freedom and democracy.”
However, Tsai’s sentiment is not shared by all Taiwanese. Her political rival (for the January 2020 presidential election) Kaoshiung Mayor Han kuo-yu is pro-Beijing. He visited with senior Beijing officials in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. But fearing political backlash for his “I don’t know” comment on the Hong Kong protests, he came out with a “never one country, two systems” statement.
China has been forcing the 20-some countries to sever their diplomatic ties with Taiwan. Since 2016, Taiwan has lost five allies. The latest allies to cave were Solomon Islands and Kiribati, leaving Taiwan with only 15 countries in the world that recognize its sovereignty currently. Despite a decrease in official diplomatic ties, Tsai has done a great job in increasing international engagement since coming to power in 2016.
Additional strongarm tactics from China toward Taiwan include forcing major airlines to list Taiwan and Hong Kong under China! Taiwanese representatives are blocked by China from attending international conferences as observers.
It also is reported that China is waging cyber warfare in an effort to sway the outcome of Taiwan’s January 2020 presidential election. As treatment of Hong Kong’s protesters deteriorate, Tsai’s anti-reunification position will only strengthen and help her political campaign. Those in Taiwan who may have previously considered the feasibility of signing a “peace treaty” with China can see from Hong Kong’s situation how fragile and untenable such a treaty may be with a country known not to keep its promises.
More and more Taiwanese and Hong Kongers have come to realize the benefits of collaborating in their resistance to China’s power grab.
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The local Chinese American community recently gathered for a day of music and cultural performances at Mall of America to celebrate China’s Mid-Autumn Festival. The daylong event was free and open to the public. Watch all the performances on youtube @ https://bit.ly/2NxBg0J
This festival is one of the most popular holidays in China. Much like America’s Thanksgiving, it is celebrated by the entire country where everyone travels to visit family.
The rotunda at Mall of America was decorated with many red lanterns suspended from the ceiling, providing a festive setting for the main stage where performances took place throughout the day. Unfortunately, seating was limited, as was the ability to view the performances from the edge of the rotunda owing to the placement of many posters extolling the virtues of the city of Chongqing, one of the event’s primary sponsors.
The event began with a cultural and tourist video by Chongqing, followed by performances that included the Chongqing Jaio Ayi Art Troupe that had traveled from China to participate in this event. More than 15 local members of the Chinese and Hmong communities presented 30-plus performances throughout the day.
The Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival has been celebrated since the Zhou Dynasty (1045-221 B.C.). It started as a celebration of the moon. The Emperor believed that by giving gifts to the moon after the fall harvest would help guarantee a good harvest the following year. These offerings were usually placed on an outdoor altar for the moon to “see,” and consisted of various foods and drinks, like tea. The practice of celebrating the moon spread from just the Emperor through the upper class and into the masses during the Tong Dynasty (A.D. 618-907). It wasn’t until the Song Dynasty (A. D. 960-1279) that a formal festival was established and celebrated by the entire country. It is to occur on the 15th day of the eighth month of the lunar calendar corresponding with a full moon, which means it can occur anywhere between the middle of August through early October in the Gregorian calendar.
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Source: Jennifer Zhan, Asian American News
Image courtesy of U.S. Mint
The Citizens Coin Advisory Committee (CCAC) has recommended a design for the Congressional Gold Medal for Chinese American World War II veterans, Coin World reports.
On Sept. 18, the committee reviewed more than a dozen designs each for both sides of the medal before making its rec- ommendation to Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin, according to Coin World.
The CCAC recommended an obverse side that depicts Chinese American service- men and a nurse. The recommended reverse side sets a World War II American flag behind an Iowa-class battleship (a class of fast battleships for intercepting fast enemy ships), an M4 Sherman tank and a P-40 Warhawk from the Flying Tigers.
According to the Chinese-American World War II Veteran Congressional Gold Medal Act, Congress finds that “Chinese Americans served the United States in every conflict since the Civil War, and distin- guished themselves in World War II, serving in every theater of war and every branch of service, earning citations for their heroism and honorable service, including the Medal of Honor.”
Senator Tammy Duckworth (D-IL) sponsored the bill that called Congress to award this collective honor to Chinese American WWII veterans. It was intro- duced in the Senate in 2017 and became Public Law 115-337 in December of 2018.
OCA– Asian Pacific American Advo- cates President Sharon Wong said in a 2018 press release that the recognition was “very timely,” given that the law passed following the 75th anniversary of the repeal of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The OCA-Asian Pacific American Advocates is dedicated to advancing the social, political, and eco- nomic well-being of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.
“Over 20,000 Chinese-Americans served their nation and sacrificed their lives for the sake of our freedom. Although many of the veterans are no longer with us, it is still poignant that they have been recognized by their country for their service,” Wong added in the statement.
The law dictates that after the medal is formally awarded in honor of the veterans, it will be given to the Smithsonian Institu- tion to be displayed and made available for research.
Coin World also reports that the U.S. Mint will strike and offer 1.5-inch and 3-inch bronze duplicates of the gold medal for public sale. ♦
Note: Go to www.caww2.org to register known Chinese American veterans of WWII and perhaps be eligible for a free replica of the Congressional Gold Medal that is now estimated to be awarded in the Spring of 2020.
By Elaine Dunn
In 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong declared on Oct. 1 the founding of the People’s Republic of China
(PRC) and Oct. 1 would be its National Day.
That first inaugural proclamation was followed by a military parade, numbering 16,400 troops and
thousands of cheering civilians marching along.
The first National Day (1949) was captured by artist Dong Xiwen in an oil painting, unveiled in 1953. The painting,
however, had to be “edited” in 1954 where the bearded gentleman to Mao’s left was purged from the Party and the
painting after he called for Mao to retire. His spot was replaced by a potted chrysanthemum!
Since 1949, National Day in China has been marked by much bigger military parades (in Beijing and
Shanghai), state banquets, large political gatherings and speeches. In 1954, Beijing even sent a
representative to Moscow to study how the Soviets conducted such events. The result of that trip was the
addition of an “advancing forward in unison” element, where parade participants rush toward the review
platform to cheer and greet the leaders present. A “living image” element was added in 1957. This
consisted of thousands of people holding bouquets or colored placards facing Tiananmen Gate to form a
huge visual pattern.
Around the holiday, portraits of revered leaders are prominently displayed in public spaces still.
By Judy Hohmann, contributor
The fall season brings many Minnesota traditions, old and new. Why not make fall a reason to celebrate Chinese culture, too?
Start with the tradition of a changing Minnesota landscape, as it transforms from green to brilliant displays of red, orange, purple and yellow. Whether on paved walkways along urban lakes or wooded trails, you will feel the magic of Mother Nature’s most colorful season. Two serene spaces at opposite ends of the metro area infuse the beauty of Chinese culture: The new St. Paul-Changsha, China Friendship Garden of Whispering Willows and Flowing Waters at Phalen Regional Park — in an urban neighborhood of St. Paul; and the University of Minnesota-Shaanxi Provincial People’s Government, China Garden of Harmonious Beauty at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum — in the growing southwest community of Chanhassen, showcase distinctive interpretations of the classic Chinese garden design. Each garden prominently features gifts from Chinese government partners, ranging from a gilded pavilion to three mountainous rocks. The harmony with nature in the form of water, rocks and plants will uplift your mood and cultural pride.
Red pagoda at the Landscape Arboretum, Chaska
By Jackson Venjohn, contributor
In 2018, I spent eight weeks in Beijing at Capital Normal University studying Mandarin in a language-intensive program. I thoroughly enjoyed experiencing Asia first in Beijing because it is the cultural and political center of China. That summer was particularly impactful because I arrived at the beginning of formal trade friction between the United States and China. I had the opportunity to discuss Sino-U.S. economics with professors, students and newly made Chinese friends in Beijing.
In July 2018, at the International Monetary Forum at Renmin University in Beijing, I heard perspectives on the current U.S.-China trade situation from Chinese and American students attending the world’s top universities. The forum was particularly thought provoking as I recognized that with the possible exception of U.S.-Japan economic friction in the 1980s, looking back on history, there are few historical examples that are appropriate to compare to the current trade situation. The lack of historical basis makes forming an opinion and siphoning out truth on the current complex and controversial trade situation difficult, yet evermore fascinating.
This summer, I was able to return to East Asia for nine weeks in Taipei, Taiwan. Before that, I spent a week in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the greater Guangdong region better and strengthening relationships with business professionals in Hong Kong. My weeklong stay coincided with the first week of political demonstrations in Hong Kong. At the time, the magnitude to which these demonstrations would develop was unknown. In that way, I did not consider the situation thoroughly until several days after I had left.
Until arriving in Hong Kong, I had underestimated the differences between mainland China and the Special Administrative Region: language, culture, landscape, economics and politics. As Cantonese is the native dialect in Hong Kong, it felt unusual and uncomfortable being in an Asian city where I could read the characters but could not communicate verbally except through English. However, after several days in the financial center of Asia, I began to grasp just how special Hong Kong is. The vertical nature of the city’s seemingly innumerous skyscrapers fueled by the world’s freest economy and capital markets, is extraordinary given Hong Kong’s steep, mountainous terrain. Pairing the sweltering June heat with humidity seemed to make every trip outside feel like a workout.Add a comment
The answer to that million-dollar question is not black and white. As the saying goes, “It’s complicated.”
Unless you’ve been living under a rock in a deep well, you would have been made aware of the Hong Kong protests in national and local media.
Where, when and how will these protests end? Will they hasten Hong Kong’s demise? Or will the million-strong protesters stave off Beijing’s power grab?
Whether we side with the pro-democracy protesters or the pro-Beijing camp, we have to admit there are differences in the way things were run in the past and now, and how things will be.
So, is Hong Kong China?
Hong Kong was ceded to the British by the Chinese as a result of being defeated in the two Opium Wars in the 1800s (1839-1842 and, again, 1856-1860). It was handed back to the Chinese in 1997 under the agreement the former British colony would enjoy another 50 years of autonomy and to be known as a Special Administrative Region (SAR). This is where China’s “One country, two systems” come into play. Hong Kong will retain its own currency, legal system (completely distinct from Beijing’s and is based on British common law) and parliamentary system until 2047. The official languages are English and Cantonese, as opposed to mainland’s Mandarin.
Culturally, too, there are differences. Hong Kong may maintain Chinese traditions and observe the many cultural festivities, its exposure to international media and influences make its citizens take on a much more metropolitan view and ideology than the Chinese in the mainland, who have known nothing but Communist rule.
In 2015, a Hong Kong designer posted a series of “Hong Kong is not China” illustrations on Facebook depicting the differences between Hong Kong and China in terms of cultural habits, socio- political, censorship, judicial structures, etc. with the purpose of telling the world how Hong Kongers differ from the Chinese mainlanders and to “Mourn the fact that Hong Kong has been ‘colonized’ by mainland China.” Albeit some may be tongue-in-cheek, differences, real or perceived, are there. Following are some illustrations from the series.
Fourth of July. Independence Day. Nationalistic pride. A day off to enjoy community parades, picnics in the park, backyard BBQs and a night of fireworks. A day to celebrate one of the documents that is the foundation of the American spirit., the Declaration of Independence
In 1776, July 4 was a declaration of independence from the king of England, that “these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.” It was an affirmation of freedom, liberty and freedom of choice.
The second paragraph of that most sacred of documents, the Declaration of Independence, states:
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
Yet for the Chinese who came to “the Gold Mountain” in the mid-1800s in pursuit of a better life, this sentiment did not seem to apply to them except for the few early ones whose diligent work ethic and willingness to perform tasks European Americans deemed undesirable made them welcome.
Life for the Chinese immigrants in the mid-1800s was absolutely no picnic. They were feared, loathed and stereotyped. Many toiled as inexpensive railroad workers, miners, cooks and laundrymen. For those early Chinese in America, they were certainly not considered equal and their pursuit of happiness, let alone citizenship, was much thwarted.
Then, as now, there is a portion of the American population who feel they and their identity are under siege with the presence of Chinese (then) and other non-Caucasian (now) immigrants.
As a group, Chinese Americans are considered the “model minority” -- self-reliant with good work ethics and strong family values.
Yet, as the timeline shows, the “fortunes” of Chinese Americans parallel the ups and downs of U.S.-Chinese relations. Things improved during WWII, when the two countries became allies. Those Chinese, particularly students, who were stranded in the U.S. at that time became new immigrants. When the Cold War began, Chinese Americans were once again the target of suspicion and potential enemies of the state. Right now, with tensions between the two countries high, Chinese Americans are once again looked upon with distrust by some.
The FBI’s current campaign on economic espionage has China and Chinese Americans in its crosshairs.
In January of this year, the director of the Center for Public Health and Translational Genomics at the University of Texas, a naturalized Chinese American award-winning epidemiologist, stepped down after a three-month investigation into her professional ties in China. (No charges have been filed against her as we go to press.) Hers is not an isolated incident. A Bloomberg article in June reported “the National Institutes of Health and FBI are targeting ethnic Chinese scientists, including U.S citizens, searching for a cancer cure.” Three other top Chinese American scientists from Houston had left in recent months.
We cannot be too complacent. The constant bombardment of “China rising” may lead to the resurrection of “Yellow Peril” paranoia. Some of the recent political campaign messages are reminiscent of the mid- to late-1800s anti-Chinese rhetoric.
As Chinese Americans, we need to exercise our rights and voice our concerns, just like Norman Asing and Wong Ar Chong.
As Chinese, we’ll never look Caucasian American. So we’ll just have to grin and bear the question, “So, where are you from?” and trust that one day, the 1931 study that concluded Chinese may be “American by birth, but not in fact” will be but a sad past.
So, what’s your Independence Day going to be like? Given the unmentionable hardships the early Chinese in America endured, we should all be celebrating with gusto! But also remember their struggles.