Minnesota’s manufactured exports soared to a record high in 2008, reaching US$17.3 billion.
• The state’s exports gained US$1 billion (or grew 6.2 percent) between 2007 and 2008, despite the economic downturn.
• Minnesota ranked 20th largest in value among all states.
• The U.S. export growth rate was 9.8 percent, driven by large export gains in Texas, Florida, California, Louisiana and New York.

Minnesota’s manufactured exports soared to a record high in 2008, reaching US$17.3 billion.web_figure1
• The state’s exports gained US$1 billion (or grew 6.2 percent) between 2007 and 2008, despite the economic downturn.
• Minnesota ranked 20th largest in value among all states.
• The U.S. export growth rate was 9.8 percent, driven by large export gains in Texas, Florida, California, Louisiana and New York.


Most of Minnesota’s manufacturing industries increased exports, and many of the smaller industries posted record-high exports in 2008.
• Machinery (second largest in export value) led the state’s manufacturing industries in export gains (US$326 million).
• The major exceptions to growth were transportation equipment (down 7 percent) and miscellaneous goods (down 5 percent).

The state’s 20 largest country markets had mixed performances in 2008.
• Two-thirds experienced steady to strong growth, while the others experienced decline.
• Five countries gained at least US$100 million in 2008, compared to 2007: Canada (up US$397 million), the Philippines (up US$253 million), Mexico (up US$180 million), China (up US$129 million) and Belgium (up US$127 million).
• The largest losses were incurred by Ireland (down US$223 million) and Thailand (down US$131 million).

Manufactured exports are critical to the state economy.
• They are responsible for an estimated 131,800 jobs in Minnesota, ranking 16th largest among all states, according to the International Trade Administration of the U.S. Department of Commerce (2006 estimate).
• Exporting of manufactured goods supported 59,000 export-related jobs in manufacturing, up 8 percent since 2005.
• Another 72,800 export-related jobs are found in other industries such as transportation and logistics fields – key sectors in delivering product to export markets.

The following sections provide more details on exports by industry, country markets and products.

Regional Export Markets
Minnesota’s main regional markets are North America, the European Union and Asia.
• Compared to U.S. exporters, Minnesota sells a greater share of its goods to the European Union and Asia, but a smaller share to Central and South America.
• Minnesota businesses increased exports to most regions between 2007 and 2008.
• The regional distribution in the state’s exports has changed recently. Between 2005 and 2008, the regional market export share increased by almost 6 percentage points for North America and by almost 2 percentage points for South and Central America. In contrast, the European Union share fell about 6 percentage points, while Asia fell 3 percentage points.


North America remained Minnesota’s largest exporting region for a second consecutive year.
• Minnesota exports to North America reached a record of US$5.6 billion, and rose 11 percent, exceeding U.S. growth of 5 percent, between 2007 and 2008.
• North America led all regions in the state’s export gains (US$57 million).
• In 2008, for the first time, North America accounted for the same share of exports for Minnesota and the United States. (32 percent). Canada, however, accounted for a larger share and Mexico accounted for a smaller share of the state’s exports compared with U.S. exports as a whole.

Exports to 27 members of the European Union (EU-27) were valued at US$4.9 billion in 2008.
• Minnesota exports fell slightly by 0.1 percent since 2007. Strong gains in exports to Belgium, France and the U.K. were offset by declines in exports to Ireland and Germany.
• U.S. exports to the EU surged 10 percent, especially to the Netherlands and Germany.

Asia purchased US$4.6 billion of the state’s manufactured exports.
• Minnesota sales to this region rose 7 percent, exceeding the growth rate of national exports to Asia (3 percent).

Central and South America experienced the strongest export growth rate among all regions.
• The state’s exports to this region increased 18 percent (or US$135 million) to US$877 million. U.S. exports to this region grew 27 percent.

The state’s other regions were Non-EU Europe (i.e. Europe, excluding EU, US$421 million), Australia-Pacific (US$456 million), the Middle East (US$333 million) and Africa (US$147 million).


Top Markets by Country
Minnesota increased exports to seven of the state’s top 10 markets between 2007 and 2008.web_figure4
• The most notable changes in rank among the top 10 markets between 2007 and 2008 were the
Philippines (up from 11th to sixth), Mexico (up from eighth to fifth), Germany (down from fifth to eighth) and the Netherlands (down from seventh to 10th).
• Minnesota accounts for more than 10 percent of U.S. exports to Ireland and the Philippines.

Minnesota’s annual exports to Canada (Rank: 1) rose to a record US$4.8 billion.
• Exports to Canada grew 9 percent between 2007 and 2008, gained almost US$400 million during this period and accounted for 28 percent of the state’s exports.
• Petroleum and coal products (up US$130 million or 261 percent, to US$180 million) and machinery (up US$92 million or 15 percent, to US$707 million) performed the most strongly. Growing machinery segments included sand/liquid dispersing equipment, liquid pumps and specialized machinery, while the main growing petroleum area was non-crude petroleum
products (e.g. light diesel oil, motor oils).
• Transportation equipment goods totaled US$1.2 billion, a decline of 5 percent since 2007.
Exports of public transportation vehicles and small trucks decreased, while those of snowmobiles and pleasure boats increased.


State exports to China (including Hong Kong) (2) surged 11 percent to almost US$1.3 billion in 2008.
• Exports of computers and electronics to China were worth US$371 million in 2008, climbing 23 percent (or US$71 million) since 2007. Growing market segments included computer components, printed circuits and parts for telecommunications applications.
• Food exports gained 40 percent to US$84 million in 2008, driven by increased sales of meat.

Frozen poultry products were up US$12 million (or 111 percent) and frozen pork products were up US$5 million (or 281 percent).web_figure5
• Machinery exports dropped 5 percent, led by weaker demand for optic-related products, some engines/motors and printing machinery.

Minnesota’s sales to Ireland (3) slumped (down 20 percent) to US$884 million.
• Exports to Ireland dipped below US$1 billion for the first time since 2002. Although ranked ahead of China between 2001 and 2005, Ireland fell behind China in 2006 and has been ranked third since.
• The state’s exports of the top two industry areas, miscellaneous (including medical) goods and computer and electronics products, each fell by more than 20 percent. These two areas represent almost 90 percent of exports.
• Minnesota accounts for a disproportionately large share of U.S. sales to this country (10.7 percent), although this share has fallen along with the decline in the state’s exports to Ireland.
• Exports to Ireland have been volatile, partly because they are less diversified and depend heavily on medical goods (72 percent), so changes in medical industry and business operations can heavily affect these exports.

Minnesota’s exports to Japan (4) totaled US$799 million in 2008. National and state exports to Japan both rose 1.6 percent between 2007 and 2008.
• Strong increased sales of medical products (within the miscellaneous goods industry) were up 25 percent to US$133 million and helped boost exports to Japan.
Exports of the main products, computers and electronics, grew modestly (2.5 percent).
• Machinery exports continued to slide (13 percent drop) to US$122 million. Food exports dropped sharply by US$11 million (or 14 percent) to US$68 million, the second-largest drop by industry.
• Performance by U.S. exports was also mixed across industries, with strong growth in chemical and food products being offset by steep declinesin computers, electronics and machinery exports.

Mexico (5) moved up from eighth to the state’s fifth largest export market, as exports jumped 29 percent to US$794 million.
• Exports to Mexico represented 4.6 percent of the state’s exports, the same share as Japan’s.
• For the second consecutive year, exports of food products to Mexico surged more than 20 percent (to US$258 million) and were web_figure6the main source of growth and the main export, accounting for 32 percent of the state’s exports to Mexico.
• Machinery became the second-largest exported product to Mexico as exports exploded by 76 percent (or up US$53 million) to US$123 million. The main growth areas were parts for lifting and moving equipment (e.g. pulleys and cranes), some compressors, centrifuges and filters.
• Computer and electronics goods (down 9 percent to US$106 million) were one of the few industries to experience a decline in exports.

The Philippines (6) continued its brilliant performance, moving up from 11th in 2007.
• Exports to the Philippines increased by US$253 million (or up 52 percent) to US$743 million.
• Minnesota is the third-largest exporting state to the Philippines (behind California at US$1.2 billion and Texas at US$1.1 billion).
• In 2008, the Philippines had the third-fastest growth rate (among the top 40 markets) and second-largest export gain.
• Growth was fueled by computer and electronics exports, which increased 54 percent (or US$234 million) to US$672 million and represented 90 percent of exports to this country. The vast majority of these goods were integrated circuits.

State exports to the United Kingdom (7) totaled US$741 million, growing at a steady pace of 7 percent.web_figure7
• The strongest growing area for Minnesota was computers and electronics, the main export, which increased 11 percent to US$211 million.
• Other strong performers were machinery (up 13 percent, or almost US$13 million, to US$110 million, the third-largest export), food products (up 70 percent, or US$10 million, to US$25 million) and electrical equipment (up 22 percent, or almost US$10 million, to US$54 million).

Weaker demand for Minnesota exports in Germany (8) led to a drop from fifth in 2007 to eighth in 2008.
• Minnesota’s exports to Germany dropped 5 percent to US$729 million due to slumping sales in the top three industries.
• The state’s exports of machinery (US$102 million) fell the most, by US$23 million, driven by weaker sales of liquid pumps and printing machinery (each declining by about US$10 million).
• Exports of computers and electronics fell slightly (down 2 percent to US$356 million) while exports of miscellaneous goods fell moderately (down 7 percent to US$85 million).
• Smaller market segments were among the better performers: transportation equipment (up 37 percent to US$39 million), primary metal products (up 53 percent to US$11 million) and food products (up 38 percent to US$8 million).

Belgium (9) moved up one spot as its purchases from Minnesota jumped 25 percent to US$625 million.
• During the past six years, as exports to Belgium have been consistently strong, Belgium’s ranking has steadily increased.
• Exports of machinery products – about half of the state’s exports to Belgium – drove export growth of 60 percent to almost US$300 million. Growing segments were sand- or liquid-dispersing equipment (up US$46 million to US$165 million) and liquid pumps (up US$42 million to US$45 million).
• Prior to 1999, at least 75 percent of the state’s exports consisted of machinery and computer and electronics products. Since 1999, export growth of miscellaneous (chiefly, medical) products and machinery accelerated, such that these two latter areas accounted for 78 percent of the state’s exports to Belgium in 2008.

web_figure8Minnesota’s sales to the Netherlands (10) dipped 5 percent to US$590 million.
• The Netherlands’ ranking dropped three spots to 10th in 2008, from a high of fifth in 2006.
• Exports of computer and electronics products slid 19 percent to US$184 million. Further, the decline in chemical products (down 20 percent to US$87 million, mostly due to pharmaceutical products) partly offset the strong export gains in miscellaneous products of 25 percent, to almost US$191 million.
• These top three industries represented 78 percent of Minnesota’s exports to this country.

Fastest-Growing Country Markets
Minnesota’s 10 fastest-growing export markets (by growth rate, among countries with US$50 million or more in Minnesota exports) included four in Central and South America and two in the Middle East.

The Dominican Republic (38), Peru (39), Argentina (28) and Brazil (15) together generated
55 percent of exports to Central and South American markets.
• In the Dominican Republic, strong demand for electrical equipment (US$14 million) and leather goods (US$12 million) fueled export growth.
• In the South American markets, the main growing segments were machinery (Argentina, Brazil, Peru), electrical equipment (Argentina) and computers and electronics (Peru).
• In particular machinery exports to Brazil were up 80 percent to US$89 million, mainly due to increased sales of specialized machinery, centrifuges and filters, and liquid pumps.

Minnesota’s exports increased almost 14 percent to the Middle East.
• The United Arab Emirates (25) jumped up in rank from 33rd in 2007 as exports grew to US$109 million. Exports of machinery (up 41 percent to US$28 million) and transportation equipment (up 76 percent to US$19 million) increased the most.
• Electrical equipment and machinery boosted exports to Saudi Arabia (34).

web_table2India (19) was among the state’s fastest-growing markets based on machinery products (up 79 percent to US$51 million), which accounted for 31 percent of exports.








Top Markets by Industry
web_figure9Most industries posted record-high levels of exports from Minnesota in 2008.
• The exceptions were three of the top four industries (computers and electronics, transportation equipment and miscellaneous goods) and nonmetallic mineral products.

Minnesota was among the top 15 states in four of its five major exporting manufacturing industries:
• computers and electronics (ninth),
• machinery (14th),
• miscellaneous products (eighth) and
• food (11th).

Exports of computers and electronics (Rank: 1) were valued at US$4.2 billion in 2007.
• These exports rose barely 5 percent (or US$192 million) since 2007, slightly exceeding the U.S. growth rate of 1.7 percent.
• Minnesota sales to Thailand fell by two-thirds (or down US$140 million) to US$65 million, while those to the Netherlands and Ireland fell by one-fifth to US$184 million and US$156 million, respectively.
• The main bright spot in Asia for Minnesota continued to be the Philippines, where sales of computers and electronics jumped 53 web_table3percent (or up US$234 million) to US$672 million and were driven by integrated circuits, for which the Philippines accounted for almost 75 percent of sales.
• Other strong performers were China (up 23 percent to US$371 million), Canada (up 12 percent to US$504 million) and France (up 32 percent to US$194 million).

Machinery (2) exports from Minnesota were valued at US$2.9 billion and were key drivers of growth for the state between 2007 and 2008.
• Exports of machinery products increased 13 percent (or US$326 million). U.S. exports of machinery also did well, gaining 10 percent.
• Canada and Belgium – the state’s main two markets for machinery – contributed the lion’s share of the gains. Exports to Canada increased 16 percent (or US$96 million) to US$707 million, while these exports to Belgium increased 60 percent (or US$112 million) to US$299 million.
Gains in strongly growing markets such as Mexico, Brazil and Spain offset large declines in Korea, Taiwan and Germany.



Transportation equipment (3) exports were valued at US$2 billion in 2008, down 7 percent since 2007.
• The overall trend was heavily influenced by the substantial drop in sales to Russia – down 97 percent to US$5 million – between 2007 and 2008.
This drop appears to be an isolated occurrence that offsets the unusual increase in 2007. The state’s exports to Russia of these goods did not exceed US$4.3 million prior to 2007.
• The state’s exports of transportation goods were flat (down 0.6 percent), excluding Russia.
• Canada is the dominant buyer (US$1.2 billion), with a market share of 61 percent. Exports to this market fell by 4.4 percent.
• Markets that experienced gains of more than US$10 million were Finland (third largest, up 26
percent to US$69 million in exports), Norway (fifth largest, up 29 percent to US$55 million), Italy (seventh largest, up 132 percent to US$43 million) and Germany (ninth largest, up 37 percent to US$39 million).

web_figure12Minnesota exports of miscellaneous (including medical) products (4) totaled US$2 billion.
• The state’s exports declined 5 percent, in contrast to U.S. export growth of 14 percent.
• Minnesota’s exports mainly consist of medical goods, such as worn or carried medical devices, and medical and surgical instruments.
• Ireland was the primary market, with US$634 million in exports or a share of 32 percent.
• Belgium has been a reliable source of growing demand for medical products during the past several years. These goods now represent 31 percent of Minnesota’s exports to Belgium.
• Belgium and the Netherlands are the second largest markets for these goods, each with US$191 million in sales. Both countries commonly function as distribution centers in Europe.

Minnesota’s businesses exported US$1.4 billion – a record high – in food products (5) in 2008.
• The state’s exports of food grew 16 percent, compared to U.S. growth of 25 percent.
• Minnesota businesses increased their sales to nine of the top 10 markets for food products, including North American countries (which accounted for 58 percent of these exports) and seven countries in Asia (which accounted for one-quarter of the state’s food exports).
• The four largest food markets contributed the most to growth.
• The strongest-growing food segments were frozen meat products (particularly pork and poultry), fats and oils (particularly soybean oil), and food waste products.

Chemical products (6) exports were essentially flat since 2007 and totaled US$999 million in 2008.web_figure13
• Canada and the U.K., the two largest buyers of the state’s chemical products, together accounted for about one-third of sales, and each experienced slight growth (Canada: 1 percent growth to US$197 million, the U.K.: 0.2 percent growth to US$124 million) since 2007.
• Canada mainly bought cosmetic preparations, protein derivatives/starch glue products and soap-detergent products. The latter two areas had strong growth, but sales of bandage products and pharmaceutical products dropped sharply.
• Exports to the Netherlands dropped 20 percent to US$87 million, mainly due to weaker demand for pharmaceutical products.
• Other major markets were China (US$89 million) and Japan (US$78 million).

Exports of electrical equipment (7) gained 20 percent between 2007 and 2008, reaching a record high of US$776 million in 2008.
• Since falling to a low in 2003, exports of electrical equipment have rebounded and grown consistently since.
• Canada was the main buyer (US$244 million) and accounted for about one-third of these sales.
• The top two markets – Canada (up 7 percent) and Mexico (up 71 percent to US$54 million) – had the largest gains in value.
• Other notable changes in sales were to the Dominican Republic (up almost US$12 million to US$14 million) and the United Kingdom (up almost US$10 million to US$54 million).

web_figure14Businesses selling paper products (8) maintained their sales from 2007, with a slight growth rate of 0.4 percent, reaching US$588 million in sales in 2008.
• Strong gains in China (up 14 percent or almost US$12 million, to US$93 million), Brazil (up 43 percent to US$18 million) and Mexico (up 25 percent to US$24 million) were offset by weaker trends in Germany (down 50 percent to almost US$7 million), Taiwan (down 15 percent to US$22 million) and other countries.
• Exports included different types of paper and cardboard, waste paper, and wood pulp products.
• Canada, the main individual country destination, contributed 26 percent of sales in 2008, down from a high of 58 percent in 2000. Its share has decreased as the market share of countries in Asia has increased from 12 percent in 2000 to 48 percent in 2008.


Minnesota’s plastics and rubber products (10) totaled US$453 million, up slightly by 2 percent since 2007. U.S. export growth was 6 percent.
• Exports include packaging containers (boxes, bags, crates) and polymers and resins used to make these products.
• The state’s exports were up US$14 million each in the two main markets, Canada (US$112 million) and China (US$72 million).
• Canada and China were among the strongest performers among the markets for plastics exports between 1998 and 2008, with each increasing their exports by more than US$60 million (132 percent for Canada and 374 percent for China). Exports of plastics to all countries increased US$195 million (or 75 percent) during this period.

Major Exported Commodities
In addition to export data based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) discussed elsewhere in this report, export data on products defined by the Harmonized Tariff System - Schedule B (HS) provide additional insight into exports by Minnesota businesses.


HS 84 Machinery includes computers and related parts found in NAICS 334 Computers and Electronics, as well as machinery equipment found in NAICS 333 Machinery.
• Areas that showed strong growth between 2007 and 2008 were centrifuges and filters (up 32 percent to US$509 million), sand- or liquid dispersing equipment (up 22 percent to US$449 million), liquid pumps (up 49 percent to US$192 million) and parts for lifting/moving equipment (up 51 percent to US$146 million).
• However, office machine parts and computer components (down 23 percent to US$981 million), printing machinery (down 33 percent to US$127 million) and some engines/motors (down 29 percent to US$65 million) declined substantially.

HS 85 Electrical Machinery includes products found in NAICS 334 Computers and Electronics, as well as in NAICS 335 Electrical Equipment.
• Exports of integrated circuit products jumped 52 percent to US$835 million, with the Philippines contributing much of this growth.
• Other strong performers included telephonic electric apparatus (up 24 percent to US$305 million) and electric generating sets (up 34 percent to US$175 million).

Export data on food-related industries mingle agricultural commodities and processed foods.
• Exports of soybean and other food residues (used for animal feed) were one of the strongest-performing food segments, increasing by 37 percent to US$467 million, shipped mostly to Canada and Mexico.
• The state’s exports of meat products increased 73 percent to US$161 million.
• Sales of fats and oils – particularly soybean oil – grew strongly (up 42 percent to US$162 million) to Canada (US$88 million) and Mexico (US$66 million).
These two countries accounted for 95 percent of the market for the state’s fats and oils products.

Transportation equipment covers all modes of transport: water, land (road, rail) and air.
• Exports of aircraft-related products and parts fell sharply to Russia, but this would appear to be an isolated occurrence.
• Exports of non-railway vehicles mainly consisted of small trucks, buses and snowmobiles to Canada (US$1.1 billion). The next largest markets – and accounting for a large portion of snowmobile sales – were Finland (US$68 million) and Norway (US$49 million).

HS 30 Pharmaceutical Products include bandages, medicines, blood and vaccine-related products.
• Shipments fell the most to the Netherlands (down 31 percent, or US$33 million, to US$73 million), the second-largest market in 2008, but the largest market in 2007.
• Exports declined by more than US$10 million to Germany, Canada and China.

Export Logistics
Exports are shipped via multiple transport modes.
• Most commonly, exports leave the country by airplane (43 percent), followed by road and rail (33 percent) and by ship (24 percent).
• Recently, the share of air shipping has dropped, while that of road and rail shipping has risen.

web_figure17Air shipments were valued at US$7.5 billion.
• The main industries shipped by air – together accounting for 81 percent of air shipments – were computers and electronics (US$3.6 billion), miscellaneous goods (US$1.6 billion) and machinery (US$769 million).

Land-based (road and rail) shipments were valued at US$5.7 billion and grew 17 percent.
• Transportation equipment (US$1.4 billion), machinery (US$906 million) and processed food products (US$876 million) accounted for 56 percent of these shipments.
• Shipments by land were up 8 percent, largely due to gains in shipments of machinery, food and petroleum products, which offset declines in shipments of transportation goods.

Ships carried US$4.1 billion of goods overseas.
• Machinery (US$1.2 billion), processed food (US$538 million) and transportation equipment (US$416 million) were the three largest industries exporting goods by ship.
• Exports by ship were up US$593 million (or 17 percent), largely due to a substantial rise in shipments of machinery.


Peer Performance
web_table6Minnesota’s ranking among all states remained at 20th in 2008.

Texas, the top exporting state in the country, led the states in export gains (US$21 billion).
• Increased exports of non-crude oil products (up US$11 billion) fueled most of the gains and were shipped to Mexico, Canada and the Netherlands.

Among the top 20 states, Louisiana, South Carolina and Florida had the largest upward changes in rank.
• Florida moved up three spots, while Louisiana and South Carolina moved up four spots.
• Florida posted the second-largest gain in value (up US$8.4 billion or 21 percent).
• Louisiana continued its strong performance from 2006-2007. Louisiana posted the third largest export growth rate (45 percent) and the fourth-largest export gain (US$7.7 billion). Noncrude oil products fueled most of the gains.
• Export growth of 21 percent in South Carolina was driven by strong growth in exports of transportation equipment (mainly cars) and machinery (mainly gas turbines).

The Big Picture in State Exports
Minnesota’s exports from manufacturing, services and agricultural industries were estimated at US$31.1 billion – up 15 percent between 2007 and 2008.
• Manufactured exports (US$17.3 billion) contributed the largest share (55 percent) of the state’s total exports.
• Exports of agricultural commodities were estimated at US$4.4 billion in 2008, representing an increase of about 86 percent between 2007 and 2008. Minnesota was the seventh-largest state exporter of agricultural commodities and related food products (2007).
• Exports of services cover transportation-related services, royalties and licenses, and other private services. They were valued at US$9.6 billion in 2008 (up 13 percent since 2007) and accounted for 30 percent of total exports.
• Commodities and services increased their share of the state’s exports from 40 percent in 2007 to 45 percent in 2008.


1. Agriculture: Minnesota agricultural and food-related exports were estimated at $5.8 billion in 2008 by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture. This figure was then adjusted by subtracting the value of manufactured food exports to estimate exports of bulk/intermediate agricultural commodities. The ranking among states for 2008 is not yet available. (Normally, estimates from the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used. The ERS estimates state-level exports of agricultural bulk commodities, related intermediate and final consumer food products combined together. It apportions actual U.S. exports of commodities and products based on Minnesota’s historical share of large commodity groups. However, their estimates will not be released until June 2009.)
2. Services: No official comprehensive state-level export data for services are available. The Analysis and Evaluation Office of DEED calculated the estimate of $9.6 billion based on pro-rated shares of U.S. exports of services.

Minnesota Annual Export Statistics and Minnesota Quarterly Export Statistics are the most current resources available for tracking the state’s manufactured export trends and are prepared by the Department of Employment and Economic Development’s Analysis and Evaluation Office (Thu-Mai Ho-Kim, 651-259-7180).

Past issues are available at the Department’s web site (www.deed.state.mn.us, see Facts and Figures). Export data are collected by the U.S. Department of Commerce (USDOC) and distributed by the World Institute of Social and Economic Research (WISER) at Holyoke Community College in Massachusetts (based on the North American Industry Classification System) and by Global Trade Information Services (Harmonized Tariff System (Schedule B). The Origin of Movement export series show where goods originate and where the most economic impact occurs.


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